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  Linux I/O port programming mini-HOWTO
  Author: Riku Saikkonen 
  Last modified: Dec 28 1997

  This HOWTO document describes programming hardware I/O ports and wait­
  ing for small periods of time in user-mode Linux programs running on
  the Intel x86 architecture.

  1.  Introduction

  This HOWTO document describes programming hardware I/O ports and
  waiting for small periods of time in user-mode Linux programs running
  on the Intel x86 architecture. This document is a descendant of the
  very small IO-Port mini-HOWTO by the same author.

  This document is Copyright 1995-1997 Riku Saikkonen. See the Linux
  HOWTO copyright
   for details.

  If you have corrections or something to add, feel free to e-mail me
  (Riku.Saikkonen@hut.fi)...

  Changes from the previous released version (Mar 30 1997):

  ·  Clarified things regarding inb_p/outb_p and port 0x80.

  ·  Removed information about udelay(), since nanosleep() provides a
     cleaner way of using it.

  ·  Converted to Linuxdoc-SGML, and reorganised somewhat.

  ·  Lots of minor additions and modifications.

  2.  Using I/O ports in C programs

  2.1.  The normal method

  Routines for accessing I/O ports are in /usr/include/asm/io.h (or
  linux/include/asm-i386/io.h in the kernel source distribution). The
  routines there are inline macros, so it is enough to #include
  ; you do not need any additional libraries.

  Because of a limitation in gcc (present at least in 2.7.2.3 and below)
  and in egcs (all versions), you have to compile any source code that
  uses these routines with optimisation turned on (gcc -O1 or higher),
  or alternatively #define extern to be empty before you #include
  .

  For debugging, you can use gcc -g -O (at least with modern versions of
  gcc), though optimisation can sometimes make the debugger behave a bit
  strangely. If this bothers you, put the routines that use I/O port
  access in a separate source file and compile only that with
  optimisation turned on.

  Before you access any ports, you must give your program permission to
  do so. This is done by calling the ioperm() function (declared in
  unistd.h, and defined in the kernel) somewhere near the start of your
  program (before any I/O port accesses). The syntax is ioperm(from,
  num, turn_on), where from is the first port number to give access to,
  and num the number of consecutive ports to give access to. For
  example, ioperm(0x300, 5, 1) would give access to ports 0x300 through
  0x304 (a total of 5 ports). The last argument is a Boolean value
  specifying whether to give access to the program to the ports (true
  (1)) or to remove access (false (0)). You can call ioperm() multiple
  times to enable multiple non-consecutive ports. See the ioperm(2)
  manual page for details on the syntax.

  The ioperm() call requires your program to have root privileges; thus
  you need to either run it as the root user, or make it setuid root.
  You can drop the root privileges after you have called ioperm() to
  enable the ports you want to use. You are not required to explicitly
  drop your port access privileges with ioperm(..., 0) at the end of
  your program; this is done automatically as the process exits.

  A setuid() to a non-root user does not disable the port access granted
  by ioperm(), but a fork() does (the child process does not get access,
  but the parent retains it).

  ioperm() can only give access to ports 0x000 through 0x3ff; for higher
  ports, you need to use iopl() (which gives you access to all ports at
  once). Use the level argument 3 (i.e., iopl(3)) to give your program
  access to all I/O ports (so be careful --- accessing the wrong ports
  can do all sorts of nasty things to your computer). Again, you need
  root privileges to call iopl(). See the iopl(2) manual page for
  details.

  Then, to actually accessing the ports... To input a byte (8 bits) from
  a port, call inb(port), it returns the byte it got. To output a byte,
  call outb(value, port) (please note the order of the parameters).  To
  input a word (16 bits) from ports x and x+1 (one byte from each to
  form the word, using the assembler instruction inw), call inw(x). To
  output a word to the two ports, use outw(value, x). If you're unsure
  of which port instructions (byte or word) to use, you probably want
  inb() and outb() --- most devices are designed for bytewise port
  access. Note that all port access instructions take at least about a
  microsecond to execute.

  The inb_p(), outb_p(), inw_p(), and outw_p() macros work otherwise
  identically to the ones above, but they do an additional short (about
  one microsecond) delay after the port access; you can make the delay
  about four microseconds with #define REALLY_SLOW_IO before you
  #include . These macros normally (unless you #define
  SLOW_IO_BY_JUMPING, which is probably less accurate) use a port output
  to port 0x80 for their delay, so you need to give access to port 0x80
  with ioperm() first (outputs to port 0x80 should not affect any part
  of the system). For more versatile methods of delaying, read on.

  There are man pages for ioperm(2), iopl(2), and the above macros in
  reasonably recent releases of the Linux manual page collection.

  2.2.  An alternate method: /dev/port

  Another way to access I/O ports is to open() /dev/port (a character
  device, major number 1, minor 4) for reading and/or writing (the stdio
  f*() functions have internal buffering, so avoid them). Then lseek()
  to the appropriate byte in the file (file position 0 = port 0x00, file
  position 1 = port 0x01, and so on), and read() or write() a byte or
  word from or to it.

  Naturally, for this to work your program needs read/write access to
  /dev/port. This method is probably slower than the normal method
  above, but does not need compiler optimisation nor ioperm(). It
  doesn't need root access either, if you give a non-root user or group
  access to /dev/port --- but this is a very bad thing to do in terms of
  system security, since it is possible to hurt the system, perhaps even
  gain root access, by using /dev/port to access hard disks, network
  cards, etc. directly.

  3.  Interrupts (IRQs) and DMA access

  You cannot use IRQs or DMA directly from a user-mode process. You need
  to write a kernel driver; see The Linux Kernel Hacker's Guide
   for details and
  the kernel source code for examples.

  Also, you cannot disable interrupts from within a user-mode program.

  4.  High-resolution timing

  4.1.  Delays

  First of all, I should say that you cannot guarantee user-mode
  processes to have exact control of timing because of the multi-tasking
  nature of Linux. Your process might be scheduled out at any time for
  anything from about 10 milliseconds to a few seconds (on a system with
  very high load). However, for most applications using I/O ports, this
  does not really matter. To minimise this, you may want to nice your
  process to a high-priority value (see the nice(2) manual page) or use
  real-time scheduling (see below).

  If you want more precise timing than normal user-mode processes give
  you, there are some provisions for user-mode `real time' support.
  Linux 2.x kernels have soft real time support; see the manual page for
  sched_setscheduler(2) for details. There is a special kernel that
  supports hard real time; see   for
  more information on this.

  4.1.1.  Sleeping: sleep() and usleep()

  Now, let me start with the easier timing calls. For delays of multiple
  seconds, your best bet is probably to use sleep(). For delays of at
  least tens of milliseconds (about 10 ms seems to be the minimum
  delay), usleep() should work. These functions give the CPU to other
  processes (``sleep''), so CPU time isn't wasted. See the manual pages
  sleep(3) and usleep(3) for details.

  For delays of under about 50 milliseconds (depending on the speed of
  your processor and machine, and the system load), giving up the CPU
  takes too much time, because the Linux scheduler (for the x86
  architecture) usually takes at least about 10-30 milliseconds before
  it returns control to your process. Due to this, in small delays,
  usleep(3) usually delays somewhat more than the amount that you
  specify in the parameters, and at least about 10 ms.

  4.1.2.  nanosleep()

  In the 2.0.x series of Linux kernels, there is a new system call,
  nanosleep() (see the nanosleep(2) manual page), that allows you to
  sleep or delay for short times (a few microseconds or more).

  For delays <= 2 ms, if (and only if) your process is set to soft real
  time scheduling (using sched_setscheduler()), nanosleep() uses a busy
  loop; otherwise it sleeps, just like usleep().

  The busy loop uses udelay() (an internal kernel function used by many
  kernel drivers), and the length of the loop is calculated using the
  BogoMips value (the speed of this kind of busy loop is one of the
  things that BogoMips measures accurately). See
  /usr/include/asm/delay.h) for details on how it works.

  4.1.3.  Delaying with port I/O

  Another way of delaying small numbers of microseconds is port I/O.
  Inputting or outputting any byte from/to port 0x80 (see above for how
  to do it) should wait for almost exactly 1 microsecond independent of
  your processor type and speed. You can do this multiple times to wait
  a few microseconds. The port output should have no harmful side
  effects on any standard machine (and some kernel drivers use it). This
  is how {in|out}[bw]_p() normally do the delay (see asm/io.h).

  Actually, a port I/O instruction on most ports in the 0-0x3ff range
  takes almost exactly 1 microsecond, so if you're, for example, using
  the parallel port directly, just do additional inb()s from that port
  to delay.

  4.1.4.  Delaying with assembler instructions

  If you know the processor type and clock speed of the machine the
  program will be running on, you can hard-code shorter delays by
  running certain assembler instructions (but remember, your process
  might be scheduled out at any time, so the delays might well be longer
  every now and then). For the table below, the internal processor speed
  determines the number of clock cycles taken; e.g., for a 50 MHz
  processor (e.g. 486DX-50 or 486DX2-50), one clock cycle takes
  1/50000000 seconds (=200 nanoseconds).

       Instruction   i386 clock cycles   i486 clock cycles
       nop                   3                   1
       xchg %ax,%ax          3                   3
       or %ax,%ax            2                   1
       mov %ax,%ax           2                   1
       add %ax,0             2                   1

  (Sorry, I don't know about Pentiums; probably close to the i486. I
  cannot find an instruction which would use one clock cycle on an i386.
  Use the one-clock-cycle instructions if you can, otherwise the
  pipelining used in modern processors may shorten the times.)

  The instructions nop and xchg in the table should have no side
  effects. The rest may modify the flags register, but this shouldn't
  matter since gcc should detect it. nop is a good choice.

  To use these, call asm("instruction") in your program. The syntax of
  the instructions is as in the table above; if you want multiple
  instructions in a single asm() statement, separate them with
  semicolons. For example, asm("nop ; nop ; nop ; nop") executes four
  nop instructions, delaying for four clock cycles on i486 or Pentium
  processors (or 12 clock cycles on an i386).

  asm() is translated into inline assembler code by gcc, so there is no
  function call overhead.

  Shorter delays than one clock cycle are impossible in the Intel x86
  architecture.

  4.1.5.  rdtsc for Pentiums

  For Pentiums, you can get the number of clock cycles elapsed since the
  last reboot with the following C code:
       ______________________________________________________________________
          extern __inline__ unsigned long long int rdtsc()
          {
            unsigned long long int x;
            __asm__ volatile (".byte 0x0f, 0x31" : "=A" (x));
            return x;
          }
       ______________________________________________________________________

  You can poll this value to delay for as many clock cycles as you want.

  4.2.  Measuring time

  For times accurate to one second, it is probably easiest to use
  time(). For more accurate times, gettimeofday() is accurate to about a
  microsecond (but see above about scheduling). For Pentiums, the rdtsc
  code fragment above is accurate to one clock cycle.

  If you want your process to get a signal after some amount of time,
  use setitimer() or alarm(). See the manual pages of the functions for
  details.

  5.  Other programming languages

  The description above concentrates on the C programming language. It
  should apply directly to C++ and Objective C. In assembler, you have
  to call ioperm() or iopl() as in C, but after that you can use the I/O
  port read/write instructions directly.

  In other languages, unless you can insert inline assembler or C code
  into the program or use the system calls mentioned above, it is
  probably easiest to write a simple C source file with functions for
  the I/O port accesses or delays that you need, and compile and link it
  in with the rest of your program. Or use /dev/port as described above.

  6.  Some useful ports

  Here is some programming information for common ports that can be
  directly used for general-purpose TTL (or CMOS) logic I/O.

  If you want to use these or other common ports for their intended
  purpose (e.g., to control a normal printer or modem), you should most
  likely use existing drivers (which are usually included in the kernel)
  instead of programming the ports directly as this HOWTO describes.
  This section is intended for those people who want to connect LCD
  displays, stepper motors, or other custom electronics to a PC's
  standard ports.

  If you want to control a mass-market device like a scanner (that has
  been on the market for a while), look for an existing Linux driver for
  it. The Hardware-HOWTO
   is a good
  place to start.

   is a good source for more
  information on connecting devices to computers (and on electronics in
  general).
  6.1.  The parallel port

  The parallel port's base address (called ``BASE'' below) is 0x3bc for
  /dev/lp0, 0x378 for /dev/lp1, and 0x278 for /dev/lp2. If you only want
  to control something that acts like a normal printer, see the
  Printing-HOWTO .

  In addition to the standard output-only mode described below, there is
  an `extended' bidirectional mode in most parallel ports. For
  information on this and the newer ECP/EPP modes (and the IEEE 1284
  standard in general), see   and
  . Remember that since
  you cannot use IRQs or DMA in a user-mode program, you will probably
  have to write a kernel driver to use ECP/EPP; I think someone is
  writing such a driver, but I don't know the details.

  The port BASE+0 (Data port) controls the data signals of the port (D0
  to D7 for bits 0 to 7, respectively; states: 0 = low (0 V), 1 = high
  (5 V)). A write to this port latches the data on the pins. A read
  returns the data last written in standard or extended write mode, or
  the data in the pins from another device in extended read mode.

  The port BASE+1 (Status port) is read-only, and returns the state of
  the following input signals:

  ·  Bits 0 and 1 are reserved.

  ·  Bit 2 IRQ status (not a pin, I don't know how this works)

  ·  Bit 3 ERROR (1=high)

  ·  Bit 4 SLCT (1=high)

  ·  Bit 5 PE (1=high)

  ·  Bit 6 ACK (1=high)

  ·  Bit 7 -BUSY (0=high)

     (I'm not sure about the high and low states.)

  The port BASE+2 (Control port) is write-only (a read returns the data
  last written), and controls the following status signals:

  ·  Bit 0 -STROBE (0=high)

  ·  Bit 1 AUTO_FD_XT (1=high)

  ·  Bit 2 -INIT (0=high)

  ·  Bit 3 SLCT_IN (1=high)

  ·  Bit 4 enables the parallel port IRQ (which occurs on the low-to-
     high transition of ACK) when set to 1.

  ·  Bit 5 controls the extended mode direction (0 = write, 1 = read),
     and is completely write-only (a read returns nothing useful for
     this bit).

  ·  Bits 6 and 7 are reserved.

     (Again, I am not sure about the high and low states.)

  Pinout (a 25-pin female D-shell connector on the port) (i=input,
  o=output):
       1io -STROBE, 2io D0, 3io D1, 4io D2, 5io D3, 6io D4, 7io D5, 8io D6,
       9io D7, 10i ACK, 11i -BUSY, 12i PE, 13i SLCT, 14o AUTO_FD_XT,
       15i ERROR, 16o -INIT, 17o SLCT_IN, 18-25 Ground

  The IBM specifications say that pins 1, 14, 16, and 17 (the control
  outputs) have open collector drivers pulled to 5 V through 4.7 kiloohm
  resistors (sink 20 mA, source 0.55 mA, high-level output 5.0 V minus
  pullup). The rest of the pins sink 24 mA, source 15 mA, and their
  high-level output is min. 2.4 V. The low state for both is max. 0.5 V.
  Non-IBM parallel ports probably deviate from this standard. For more
  information on this, see
  .

  Finally, a warning: Be careful with grounding. I've broken several
  parallel ports by connecting to them while the computer is turned on.
  It might be a good thing to use a parallel port not integrated on the
  motherboard for things like this. (You can usually get a second
  parallel port for your machine with a cheap standard `multi-I/O' card;
  just disable the ports that you don't need, and set the parallel port
  I/O address on the card to a free address. You don't need to care
  about the parallel port IRQ, since it isn't normally used.)

  6.2.  The game (joystick) port

  The game port is located at port addresses 0x200-0x207. For
  controlling normal joysticks, there is a kernel-level joystick driver,
  see  , filename
  joystick-*.

  Pinout (a 15-pin female D-shell connector on the port):

  ·  1,8,9,15: +5 V (power)

  ·  4,5,12: Ground

  ·  2,7,10,14: Digital inputs BA1, BA2, BB1, and BB2, respectively

  ·  3,6,11,13: ``Analog'' inputs AX, AY, BX, and BY, respectively

  The +5 V pins seem to often be connected directly to the power lines
  in the motherboard, so they should be able to source quite a lot of
  power, depending on the motherboard, power supply and game port.

  The digital inputs are used for the buttons of the two joysticks
  (joystick A and joystick B, with two buttons each) that you can
  connect to the port. They should be normal TTL-level inputs, and you
  can read their status directly from the status port (see below). A
  real joystick returns a low (0 V) status when the button is pressed
  and a high (the 5 V from the power pins through an 1 Kohm resistor)
  status otherwise.

  The so-called analog inputs actually measure resistance. The game port
  has a quad one-shot multivibrator (a 558 chip) connected to the four
  inputs. In each input, there is a 2.2 Kohm resistor between the input
  pin and the multivibrator output, and a 0.01 uF timing capacitor
  between the multivibrator output and the ground. A real joystick has a
  potentiometer for each axis (X and Y), wired between +5 V and the
  appropriate input pin (AX or AY for joystick A, or BX or BY for
  joystick B).

  The multivibrator, when activated, sets its output lines high (5 V)
  and waits for each timing capacitor to reach 3.3 V before lowering the
  respective output line. Thus the high period duration of the
  multivibrator is proportional to the resistance of the potentiometer
  in the joystick (i.e., the position of the joystick in the appropriate
  axis), as follows:

       R = (t - 24.2) / 0.011,

  where R is the resistance (ohms) of the potentiometer and t the high
  period duration (seconds).

  Thus, to read the analog inputs, you first activate the multivibrator
  (with a port write; see below), then poll the state of the four axes
  (with repeated port reads) until they drop from high to low state,
  measuring their high period duration. This polling uses quite a lot of
  CPU time, and on a non-realtime multitasking system like (normal user-
  mode) Linux, the result is not very accurate because you cannot poll
  the port constantly (unless you use a kernel-level driver and disable
  interrupts while polling, but this wastes even more CPU time). If you
  know that the signal is going to take a long time (tens of ms) to go
  down, you can call usleep() before polling to give CPU time to other
  processes.

  The only I/O port you need to access is port 0x201 (the other ports
  either behave identically or do nothing). Any write to this port (it
  doesn't matter what you write) activates the multivibrator. A read
  from this port returns the state of the input signals:

  ·  Bit 0: AX (status (1=high) of the multivibrator output)

  ·  Bit 1: AY (status (1=high) of the multivibrator output)

  ·  Bit 2: BX (status (1=high) of the multivibrator output)

  ·  Bit 3: BY (status (1=high) of the multivibrator output)

  ·  Bit 4: BA1 (digital input, 1=high)

  ·  Bit 5: BA2 (digital input, 1=high)

  ·  Bit 6: BB1 (digital input, 1=high)

  ·  Bit 7: BB2 (digital input, 1=high)

  6.3.  The serial port

  If the device you're talking to supports something resembling RS-232,
  you should be able to use the serial port to talk to it. The Linux
  serial driver should be enough for almost all applications (you
  shouldn't have to program the serial port directly, and you'd probably
  have to write a kernel driver to do it); it is quite versatile, so
  using non-standard bps rates and so on shouldn't be a problem.

  See the termios(3) manual page, the serial driver source code
  (linux/drivers/char/serial.c), and
   for more information
  on programming serial ports on Unix systems.

  7.  Hints

  If you want good analog I/O, you can wire up ADC and/or DAC chips to
  the parallel port (hint: for power, use the game port connector or a
  spare disk drive power connector wired to outside the computer case,
  unless you have a low-power device and can use the parallel port
  itself for power, or use an external power supply), or buy an AD/DA
  card (most of the older/slower ones are controlled by I/O ports). Or,
  if you're satisfied with 1 or 2 channels, inaccuracy, and (probably)
  bad zeroing, a cheap sound card supported by the Linux sound driver
  should do (and it's quite fast).

  With accurate analog devices, improper grounding may generate errors
  in the analog inputs or outputs. If you experience something like
  this, you could try electrically isolating your device from the
  computer with optocouplers (on all signals between the computer and
  your device). Try to get power for the optocouplers from the computer
  (spare signals on the port may give enough power) to achieve better
  isolation.

  If you're looking for printed circuit board design software for Linux,
  there is a free X11 application called Pcb that should do a nice job,
  at least if you aren't doing anything very complex. It is included in
  many Linux distributions, and available in
   (filename pcb-*).

  8.  Troubleshooting

     Q1.
        I get segmentation faults when accessing ports.

     A1.
        Either your program does not have root privileges, or the
        ioperm() call failed for some other reason. Check the return
        value of ioperm(). Also, check that you're actually accessing
        the ports that you enabled with ioperm() (see Q3). If you're
        using the delaying macros (inb_p(), outb_p(), and so on),
        remember to call ioperm() to get access to port 0x80 too.

     Q2.
        I can't find the in*(), out*() functions defined anywhere, and
        gcc complains about undefined references.

     A2.
        You did not compile with optimisation turned on (-O), and thus
        gcc could not resolve the macros in asm/io.h. Or you did not
        #include  at all.

     Q3.
        out*() doesn't do anything, or does something weird.

     A3.
        Check the order of the parameters; it should be outb(value,
        port), not outportb(port, value) as is common in MS-DOS.

     Q4.
        I want to control a standard RS-232 device/parallel
        printer/joystick...

     A4.
        You're probably better off using existing drivers (in the Linux
        kernel or an X server or somewhere else) to do it. The drivers
        are usually quite versatile, so even slightly non-standard
        devices usually work with them. See the information on standard
        ports above for pointers to documentation for them.

  9.  Example code

  Here's a piece of simple example code for I/O port access:

       ______________________________________________________________________
       /*
        * example.c: very simple example of port I/O
        *
        * This code does nothing useful, just a port write, a pause,
        * and a port read. Compile with `gcc -O2 -o example example.c',
        * and run as root with `./example'.
        */

       #include 
       #include 
       #include 

       #define BASEPORT 0x378 /* lp1 */

       int main()
       {
         /* Get access to the ports */
         if (ioperm(BASEPORT, 3, 1)) {perror("ioperm"); exit(1);}

         /* Set the data signals (D0-7) of the port to all low (0) */
         outb(0, BASEPORT);

         /* Sleep for a while (100 ms) */
         usleep(100000);

         /* Read from the status port (BASE+1) and display the result */
         printf("status: %d\n", inb(BASEPORT + 1));

         /* We don't need the ports anymore */
         if (ioperm(BASEPORT, 3, 0)) {perror("ioperm"); exit(1);}

         exit(0);
       }

       /* end of example.c */
       ______________________________________________________________________

  10.  Credits

  Too many people have contributed for me to list, but thanks a lot,
  everyone. I have not replied to all the contributions that I've
  received; sorry for that, and thanks again for the help.